Topic A: The demilitarization of Crimea
At the beginning of 2014, during a so-called “spontaneous” political crisis in Ukraine, the Russian government seized the opportunity and took the peninsula by force, leaving the Ukrainian authorities impotent. When questioned on behalf of its actions, the Russian government defended itself by claiming that it was the will of the Russian inhabitants of Crimea. Moreover, in the March of that same year, a questionable referendum was organized by the Russian authorities to prove their righteousness. If it is indeed the will of the people in Crimea, why does Russia keep enforcing its military presence in the area? Although the Russian annexation of the territory occurred a few years ago, the issue has not been solved to this day. Ukrainians are rightfully saying that they have been wronged, but nobody seems to listen. If we do not make Russia account for its actions and minimalize its military presence in Crimea, then not only Ukraine lost to Russia, but the whole modern world did.
Topic B: The establishment of a Nuclear Weapon Free Zone in the Middle East Region
Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zones (NWFZs) are, as defined in resolution 3472 B (1975) of the General Assembly, zones recognised as such by the GA of the United Nations, which any group of states, in the free exercises of their sovereignty, has established by virtue of a treaty or convention the total absence of nuclear weapons and the existence of an international system of verification and control to guarantee compliance. The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, or the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is an international treaty with the aim of preventing the spread of nuclear weapons and ultimately achieving complete nuclear disarmament. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization formed with the sole purpose of regulating the use of nuclear energy and nuclear armament. The idea of a NWFZ in the Middle East region has existed since the 1960s when Iran and Egypt expressed their wish to create such an area. For a significant period of time, all of the countries present in the region seemed to agree to the idea, but insurgents such as Iran, Iraq and Syria appeared. Although Iraq and Syria are in the present seen by the IAEA as compliant countries, Iran’s situation has deteriorated in the face of the political direction adopted by the recently elected President of the United States, Donald Trump. The MENFWZ, if ever achieved, would be an important step forward for the NPT, but also for peace in the Middle East. Countries such as Egypt, Iran and Israel are considered the protagonists of this, but the entire world is a stakeholder. Is it possible to reach a consensus or is the Middle East condemned to ever-lasting political struggles?